For an article available in more than one format print, online, etc. Generally, you'll list the author's name first, followed by the title of the source. Even then, the guide recommends that footnotes only be used to provide content notes such as providing brief, supplemental information about the text or directing readers to additional information and to denote copyright permissions. After you click that button, two numbers should appear: one number should appear in the main text, and the corresponding number should appear at the bottom of the page. Page numbers of citation for footnote or endnote.
Petersburg, 1890-1914 Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1993 , 33. Levy, Steven, and Brad Stone. In the bibliography see below you would include the full page range: 39-56. Shorten a list of four or more authors. If you're unsure if this is appropriate for your project, discuss it with your editor or advisor.
In a Bibliography, each citation consists of a minimum of three statements or sentences, hence each entry requires a minimum of three periods, e. The copyright footnote indicates that you have the required authorization. The citation form most often used for History is taken from the University of Chicago Manual of Style. Place a single footnote at the end of the sentence and include the citations to both sources in the same footnote, rather than having 2 footnotes at the end of the sentence. Enter the title of the article.
Books would become much longer and reading much more tedious. Some styles also require you to include the date you accessed the website. Guion, The Trombone: Its History and Music, 1697-1811 New York: Gordon and Breach, 1988 , 23. Continue formatting the citation as you would any other book. After your first citation, you can use a shortened version of the citation in subsequent footnotes. Indicate notes in the text of your paper by using consecutive superscript numbers as demonstrated below.
Next are the first initials and last name of the author and a comma. For the parenthetical reference author-date system commonly used in the sciences and social sciences , please refer to the separate guide. Author or editor of the website if known 2. Add numbers according to your chosen style guide, and be sure to add the numbers directly after the phrase, clause, or sentence to which the corresponding footnote refers. Each footnote has its own number, even if it is citing the same source as a previous footnote.
If available, include database publisher and city of publication. More specifically, does the original material have two or more authors? Include the first and last name s of the other author s in the same manner as you did with the first author. Copyright 2009 by Name of Copyright Holder. The first footnote contains the full citation. For types of resources not covered in this guide e. Footnotes are used when there are only a small number of references.
The only exception is if the sentence is broken up by a long dash, in which case, the superscript number goes before the beginning of the dash. When deciding , authors must consider three main factors: 1 the style guide being used as some require the use of one or the other, 2 the number of notes being included as having too many footnotes on each page can be distracting , and 3 which will be more convenient for the reader. As content footnotes should be concise, avoid writing lengthy paragraphs or including extraneous information. Complete footnote: Author in normal order, followed by comma; publication information in parentheses, page of quotation at end. Include information that reiterates or clarifies your argument. For a Book: Bibliography Guion, David M. You might also need to explain the significance of something mentioned in your source that isn't common knowledge.
For an article available in more than one format print, online, etc. Fisher, Indirect Rule in India : Residents and the Residency System, 1764-1858 New Deli, India: Oxford University Press, 1991 , 100-101. How to Footnote a Website Technology is ever changing, and as such, the process for standardizing citation on websites has not yet been formalized. Prior to using footnotes to further reference sources, ask your teacher how you should be citing sources and if footnotes are required. For Endnotes, you must use the same superscript number as in your text at the beginning of each Endnote in your Endnotes list. Regardless of whether you use footnotes or endnotes, Word makes it incredibly easy to add these to your paper. From the Library of Congress.
Book, two or three authors Leonard V. James Strachey New York: Norton, 1957. You've created your first footnote. Click on the place in the text where you want the first number to appear. Citation of a different quote from the same book: 11 Catechism 1499.