Ansari, was sent to help Turkey. This campaign led directly to the demolition of the Babri Masjid on December 6, 1992. He also started talking of separate interests of Hindus and Muslims. All this was seen by many contemporary observers. The first, which flared as a more-or-less spontaneous reaction, only a day later, lasted until December 17, 1992, leaving 227 people dead. But, Indian history in schools and colleges were given Communal and unscientific colour. There were several reasons for the advent of extreme communalism.
This process was bound to be difficult, gradual and complex. Sometimes children will lose their parents and will become orphan for life time and nobody will be there to look after them. Such violence in neighbouring countries like Myanmar, Bangladesh, and Pakistan causes violence in retaliation in India also. Alienness is certainly not concerned with white or black skin or religion. But in the long run this approach too proved harmful, as it encouraged the habit of looking at political questions from a religious view point.
Psychological Causes: Psychological factors play an important role in the development of communalism. There was struggle between the upper classes of different communities for power, privileges and economic gain. The realities of human existence now challenge the validity of modernity, under which it has been believed that reason can control even religion. The fast transfer of trading and industrial capital to Zamindari enterprise by Bengali and non-Bengali merchants and entrepreneurs installed rapacious traders, moneylenders and speculators as Zamindars. A great challenge for independent India was how to cope with the volatile situation caused by continuation of the social structures based on castes and religious division established under the colonial rule, once the colonial weight from above, which had kept violence from erupting among different groups, was lifted.
The colonial rulers showed extreme tolerance towards communal organizations and leaders and did not care to crush the communal riots. The unreal communal division, thus, obscured the real division of the Indian people into linguistic-cultural regions and social classes as well as their real, emerging and growing unity into a nation. These incidents seem to be the result of fervour for expulsion of minority religious groups deemed strangers in the holy land of India, probably inspired by the ideology of hindutva. On the other hand, Mr. We have to be rational while making decisions. Communalism has been rightly described as political trade in religion. In early decades only 8-9% of members of Congress were Muslims.
In Mumbai, the police was brazenly partisan. The increasingly felt impossibility of such progress has thrown the world into a deadlock. Remember that the words Hindu and Mohammedan are only meant for religious distinction—otherwise all persons, whether Hindu or Mohammedan, even the Christians who reside in this country, are all in this particular respect belonging to one and the same nation. The colonial administration had exhausted all other means to divide nationalists. Secondly, the introduction of English education brought the upper middle classes under the influence of Western thought at a time when nationalism was the most vital factor in the life of Europe, whilst at the same time the English language provided them with a common medium of communication.
The Ali brothers, after having put up a spectacular united front with the Congress, accused the Congress of protecting only Hindu interests. But while communalism uses, and is based on, many elements of ancient and medieval ideologies, basically it is a modern technology and political trend that expresses the social urges and serves the political needs of modern social groups, classes and forces. Religion in that sense is not self-righteous or monolithic, but pluralistic in practice. Because of economic stagnation, there was intense competition among individuals for government jobs, in professions like law and medicine, and in business for customers and markets. Because, such customary law was made part of the framework of the modern judiciary, co-ordinating customary law and modern judicature later became a very difficult task. This was recognized by many perceptive Indians.
A partisan police aggravates the breakdown of law and order, through incitement, active participation, and letting rumours fester and fly. All these incidents played with the emotions of the Muslims and alienated them from the Hindus. Others relate the communal conflicts in modern India with that of the electoral politics in the post-independence period. Since then, the valley is under the grip of communal violence and the ongoing unrest has become a problem for the development of the people. Although it is in the political sphere that the influence of British thought has been most spectacular, equally important has been the impact of Western science.
Such feeling has prevented them from accepting the concept of secularism and religious tolerance. Seeing religious fundamentalism or revival as a threat to democracy, some call for cultural pluralism on the basis of the spirit of tolerance. Golam Sarwar, a local peasant leader was the main agent provocateur. Sixth, separate electorates served as an important instrument for the development of communal politics. The main appeal of communalism and its main social base also lay among the middle classes.